Sunday, October 31, 2010

What’s nectar for secular US is toxin for secular India!

by Sri Gurumurthy

Just a century ago, Max Weber, declared that the Hindus and Buddhists remain backward because they believed in their ancient, faulty faiths!

Weber was a celebrated socio-economic thinker of the West. He counselled that belief in Karma - in which, he believed, fatalism hid - led people to accept their lot as their fate. He thus saw the Hindu-Buddhist faith in Karma as fatal to development itself. He diagnosed that Karma-centric faiths, which denied hopes to individuals, rendered their adherents unfit for modern development process.


Indian intellectualism, particularly in free India, carbon-copied Weber’s thesis and almost accepted that the traditional Indian beliefs are the nemesis of India. This turned the Indian establishment thinking apologetic about not just ancient Indian faiths but about ancient India itself!


Under the pressure of Weber’s interpretation, some bright Indian minds sidestepped the Aurobindo-Vivekananda view on ancient India as world’s future hope. They took refuge in socialist and secular ideas and delegitimised and drove the ancient Indian ideas underground. This enabled free India’s secular intellectualism, which saw ancient Indian thoughts as its principal adversary, declare everything about ancient India - whether it was Patanjali’s Yoga or Krishna’s Gita – as saffron toxic and anti-secular. In the end, Weber prevailed over free India.


Now comes, a full century after Weber theorised on how fatal is Karma, a surprising U-turn in the West. The very idea of Karma, which Weber had diagnosed as the nemesis of India, seems to be emerging as the life vest of the West! The West, fatigued with the ‘greed-is-good’ capitalism for over a century, is now looking for an alternative to the greed-based capitalism.


What is the alternative, which it sees or seeks? Believe it. It sees the alternative in Karma, the very idea Weber had condemned as anti-development. International Business Week in its recent issue (Oct 20, 2006) sees the emergence of ‘Karma Capitalism’, that is, capitalism founded on the idea of karma! The magazine defines karma capitalism as a gentler, more emphatic ethos that resonates in the post-Enron and post-technology bubble in the West.


“Big business is embracing Indian philosophy,” says the “Business Week”. Look at what it sees as Indian philosophy. “Phrases from ancient Hindu texts such as the Bhagwat Gita are popping up in management tomes and on web sites of consultants,” it says. And it goes on: “Top business schools have introduced “self-mastery” classes that use Indian methods to help managers boost their leadership skills and find inner peace in lives dominated by work”.


Not only that. Bhagwat Gita, according to “Business Week”, has replaced the 6th century BC Chinese classic Art of War of Tsun Tsu, which dominated business schools two decades earlier. The magazine says that while it used to be ‘hip in management circles’ to quote from the Chinese classic, the ‘trendy ancient Eastern text on Thursdayis Bhagwat Gita”, which the magazine says “more introspective”.


Earlier this year, says the magazine, a manager at Sprint Nextel Corp penned the inevitable how-to guide: “Bhagwat Gita on Effective Leadership“. More important, the magazine says, Indian born strategists are helping to transform the US corporations. It names several Indians who are among the world’s hottest business gurus. About 10 percent of the professors at business schools such as Harvard, Kellogg, and others are of Indian descent, it says. The senior executives who come to these schools are exposed to the Indian values that are reflected in how these professors of Indian origin think and articulate, the magazine says.

The most influential ones, the magazine says, acknowledge that common themes pervade the work of these professors of Indian origin - like that executives should be motivated by broader purpose than money; that there should be a holistic approach that integrates needs of the shareholders, employees, customers, society and environment; and that the shareholder-driven agenda must be replaced by stakeholder-focused approach. The Business World says that “Indian thinkers are affecting not only the way the managers run companies. They are also furthering their search for personal fulfilment”. In short, it says that the Indian thinking and Indian thinkers are greatly influencing Corporate America.


Corporate America’s influence on the political and economic philosophies of the West is well acknowledged. Economic globalisation has only deepened that influence. The US corporate think tanks exert considerable influence over global media and politics. In effect corporate America is the trend setter for the world. Ironically it was the US that proclaimed itself as the living model of Weber’s prescriptions as the foundation of modern ideas of capitalism and development. And that is where, surprisingly and unbelievably, the U-turn is taking place.


For secular India Bhagwat Gita and Karma Yoga are toxic substances to be kept out of the Indian discourse. The Indian management gurus and spiritual leaders are doing what Swami Vivekananda did over a century ago - namely proclaim that greatness of the Indian thought in the US and import it from the US to India. They are actually validating in the US what has been driven underground in secular India.


If the Indian management gurus did something similar in India it would attract the abuse of the seculars that they are toxifying even business and economics with saffron concepts! It may even charge that the corporate America is becoming addicted to toxic saffron. That is the measure of its hate for thoughts and things Indian. Yes the secular India dismisses as toxin what secular America realises as nectar.

Time for an intellectual, cultural rebirth

by Sri Gurumurthy


Many sincere and honest people feel frustrated by the venality of actors in the public domain. They are anxious to know where the public discourse has gone wrong and contemplate course correction.

Here is an effort to address their concerns.

It is six decades since India became free. Today’s school children constitute Gen-3 of free India. Their great-grandfathers alone could have experienced the freedom movement. The movement for India’s freedom is no more in the memory chip of the people. It is now history — unfortunately, deliberately distorted — taught to young minds.

This distortion is self-evident in secular India’s discourse. It quickly, and effectively, distanced itself from the great drives that constituted the soul of the freedom movement — whether it is the ‘Ram Rajya’ of Mahatma Gandhi, or the worship of the Motherland symbolised by Maharishi Bankim Chandra’s ‘Vande Mataram’, or the concept of ‘Sanatana Dharma’ Maharishi Aurobindo held out as the nationalism of India, or the ‘spiritual nationalism’ commended by Swami Vivekananda. The secular discourse branded these concepts outdated ideas, to be detested and publicly disowned. In fact, given the tone of the discourse today, it is doubtful whether any of these great builders of modern India could pass the test of secular acceptability.

The perversion in secular India’s public domain is explicit, but its degree is even graver.

The Indian struggle for freedom from the British was more profound than a battle for political freedom for India’s geography. It was also part of the centuries- long quest of the Indian people to resist foreign invaders, like the struggle of Prithviraj Chauhan or Maharana Pratap, or Chatrapati Shivaji or Guru Gobind Singh later, or Raja Ranjit Singh or Rani of Jhansi still later. By dividing the indigenous peoples on racial and religious lines, the colonisers could almost convince them that India never belonged to anyone; it was open to anyone who invaded it; it was never a nation; and there was nothing called India till the British made it one. The colonisers thus first distorted the discourse and then confused the identity of the Indian people and their relation with their land of birth. Unsurprisingly, it was their past more than the future that looked uncertain to Indians. By such sustained discourse the colonisers had effectively caused cerebral paralysis. Result, Indians stood conquered intellectually, culturally and civilisationally.

Therefore, while earlier it was a war even for physical survival, the battle against the British was more a struggle to recover the mind of India, which the foreigner had hijacked. As a consequence, while most of India’s conquered detested the earlier invaders, the later colonisers persuaded sections of influential Indians to feel comfortable with them. So the quest for recovering the lost mind and reconnecting Indians to their past to define their identity became the principal drive of the battle against the British. The freedom struggle gradually intensified as an intellectual, cultural and spiritual endeavour to make India comprehensively independent even as it targeted political freedom.

A critical component in the efforts of the Indian freedom movement to fight the intellectual lethargy and subaltern mind of Indians was the role played by the nationalist media. It promoted a high level of indigenous cultural and civilisational consciousness in the Indian people. Invariably everyone, whether it was Gandhi or Aurobindo, Tilak or Subramanya Bharati, who took the lead to sow the seeds of the freedom movement, or to add power to it later, started a newspaper or magazine.

Many, like ‘Sanku’ Subramaniam, became bankrupt as they distributed newspapers almost free to convey the idea of India to the people. The nationalist media thus not only fought for the nation’s freedom, but also for its intellectual and cultural independence and revival. Post-freedom, the secular Indian discourse, which increasingly became pseudo in character and derailed the national discourse, infected large sections of the national media and co-opted it. Thanks to this selfgoal, India became less intellectually independent after freedom than it was before, under colonial rule.

While this process began after freedom and progressed gradually, it accelerated after the advent of economic liberalisation and globalisation in the early 1990s. The Indian media gradually came to be dominated by intellectual lethargy and cultural confusion.

So, what the freedom fighters had fought hard to eliminate from the public discourse promoted by the colonisers came back to occupy prime time and prime space in free India’s media.

Added to this distortion was the emergence of an extreme commercialism, which began eating into the vitals of a free and purposeful media. The media was driven by a perceivable sense of idealism even as late as a couple of decades ago despite all other negatives.

The war that the Indian Express and the Statesman waged against the internal emergency in 1977-79 and this newspaper’s single-minded pursuit of industrial and political venality, which the Reliance and Bofors scams of the late 1980s symbolised, are illustrative of idealism defying the logic of commerce.

Today the media as a whole is becoming a captive of commerce and is obsessed with nothing other than turnover and profit. The trend is irresistible. To swim against it means defying the whole world — a task that needs and means spiritualisation of public life, like Mahatma Gandhi did. This loss of intellectual independence and emergence of unbridled commercialism is dwarfing the stature of the Indian media as the Fourth Estate. This loss of direction needs to be course-corrected if the larger interest of India is to be safeguarded.

Fortunately, technology seems to have a cost-effective solution for this epidemic.

Some 10 powerful websites, duly popularised, that review and audit the media can correct the media’s course.

They can hold a mirror to it to show it and to the people how it performs or fails. The only way to make the media realise this is to publish in the site what it refuses to, or to prove what it publishes is incorrect, to make the public know what the media business is all about today.

A motivated team to sustain and intensify this mission can achieve the result in a fairly short time. The mission will rediscover the India that for long showed the lead to the world. This can transform an India that is free but not independent into an intellectually free and independent India. Any takers?

Hero For Modern India

Who is just, firm and stands for the weak ?
Who is an honest and able administrator ?
Who confronts the enemy and is not cowed into submission ?
To whom did Mother India appear in a vision to fight for victory ?
Who has the statesmanship and the vision to build a Greater India?
Who is ruthless with his enemies, but spares women, children and his own people ?
Who respects all religions and pays homage to Muslim, Jain or Hindu saints ?
To which political party belongs this Hero for Modern India ?












Actually to none. But Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj does belong to India and to all Indians, whatever their religion or ethnic origin, for he is an eternal icon of courage, statesmanship, love for his country, able and honest administration. In fact, the qualities that he embodied, are those that a modern Indian politician should possess, but unfortunately, seldom has. Shivaji was a man for all India: he travelled, thought about, and warred in all parts of India, from Agra, then capital of the Mughal empire to Gingee, all the way down in the South. He was the first one who understood that India needed a navy if it wanted to control its waters – and he did build a formidable one.

Yet, try to look for a biography of Shivaji in any bookshop in India : it is practically impossible to find one, as many have gone out of print. Most of these biographies, except, the one from James Lane, which has all the hostile flaws of western, date back to twenty to thirty years. Now, in my country, France, we have such a hero in Napoleon. All children are schooled into Napoleon’s great deeds right from kinder garden. Like Shivaji, Napoleon was not only a great warrior, but also a statesman of exceptional vision: some of the laws and codes he devised, are still in practice today. Thus, most French people are proud of Napoleon – and rightly so – because he was, like Shivaji, great warrior, a visionary and an exceptional statesman. Therefore, every year, at least four to five new books are written, directly or indirectly, about Napoleon, his life or his deeds.

Compare this with India, where not only it is difficult to find a book about Shivaji, but where last year, the Kerala Government put a ban on school notebooks which carried pictures of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj…. This is wrong. No nation can move forward unless it has heroes. No country can progress unless it is proud of itself and can make its children relate to heroes seeped in one’s culture. But it is not so in India. This is not jingoism, but nationalism. Yet every time you open an Indian newspaper or switch on a TV channel, the impression you get is that everything is rotten in India, nothing works and that Indians are the most corrupt and inefficient people in the world.

Why is that so? Maybe because of three hundred years of British colonization, many of India’s politicians, bureaucrats and journalists are often copying whatever the West does, or are eternally worrying about what the West thinks of them. They rarely think Indian, know all about Shakespeare, but very little of Kalidasa, one of the greatest poets ever on this Planet; have read about Abraham Lincoln, but know nothing of Sri Aurobindo, philosopher, poet, revolutionary, immense yogi. Many of India’s intelligentsia have thus no idea about India’s great culture, philosophy and spirituality. Very few have read the Bhagavad Gita, or understood that it encourages yoga in action and that sometimes it is important to defend one’s country, culture and borders, by force if necessary, as Shivaji Maharaj practiced it.

There is also the wrong notion that Shivaji was anti-Muslim because he fought Aurangzeb. But the truth should be known : Shivaji allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion. The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs. One-third of his army was Muslim, as were many of his commanders: his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery.

Aurangzeb was a cruel man, even to his own family: he killed his two brothers, threw his son in jail and had his father Shah Jahan imprisoned and later poisoned. Shivaji was the only one who stood up against him, at a time when Hindus were experiencing great oppression and humiliation: their temples were being broken, and they were being discriminated against in various forms, such as in the matter of charging custom duties, restrictions on their fairs and festivals, their dismissal from government posts, large-scale conversions as a part of openly declared policy of the Mughal State, imposition of the religious tax Jiziya for being a Hindu, and these discriminatory acts were going almost unchallenged though the Hindus formed more than bout 80 per cent of the population of the country.

Yet, Shivaji had respect for the Sufi tradition of Islam and used to pray at the mausoleum of the great Sufi Muslim saint Baba Sharifuddin. He also visited the abode of another great Sufi saint, Shaikh Yacub of the Konkan, and seeked his blessings. He called Hazrat Baba of Ratnagiri bahut thorwale bhau, meaning "great elder brother". Shivaji's feelings are reflected in a letter he wrote to Aurangzeb:: "Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of him. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for him alone”. Shivaji also applied a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state, irrespective of their religion, nationality, or creed.

What to do then to remind all Indians of the great champion they had in Shivaji? I for one, am proud to announce that my foundation, FACT, which was created when I received the Natchiketa award of Excellence in Journalism at the hands of the Prime Minister in Parliament in 2003, has mounted an exhibition on Shivaji and that we are planning to release a book at the end of the year on his immense relevance to modern India (Har Anand publications, New Delhi). This is a small contribution of a foreigner, who loves India and think it is a wonderful country with great heroes.

Wake-up of my Indian brothers and sisters. You are a great nation, you have great heroes and Shivaji, certainly, is one of the most endearing ones : a Vibhuti, a direct incarnation of God, who walked upon this sacred soil of India, fearless and yet humane; a Giant of a Man, who could be reached by all. He was truly A Hero for Modern India.

Courtesy : http://www.francoisgautier.com/En/hero.html


Saturday, October 30, 2010

Vegetarian Recipes and Resources


Vegetarianism is especially recommended for those who want to follow a truly spiritual lifestyle. The information, recipes and website links on this page are provided to help anyone begin or to increase their ability to be a vegetarian. It also shows that being a vegetarian is not as difficult as some people think, at least if you are new to the idea. There are many of us who have been vegetarian for decades, and millions of others who have been lifelong vegetarians. Such a diet, when properly balanced, is quite healthy and much better for our bodies and environment. The links provided on this page can lead you to the information that will explain that. There are also cookbooks available on this page, and numerous other recipes and cookbooks that are linked from other websites that you can download or print for immediate use so that you can begin to change your diet right away, or increase the vegetarian recipes that you may already have.

ARTICLES FOR VEGETARIANISM

Humanity cannot go without enduring the consequences and serious reactions as long as people cause the unnecessary suffering of millions of animals because of the meat industry. It is time for a change, and that change starts with your decision about your own life. Additional thoughts on the matter can be found in my article, "Universal Brotherhood Includes the Animals."

You can also read and save these short articles for yourself or for sending to others:

"The Dangers of Meat" is another thought provoking article which is the review of a PBS Frontline Documentary on the increasing hazards in consuming meat.

Vegetarianism: Quotes from Noteworthy People provides a number of quotes from historical personalities from Gandhi, Pythagorus, George Bernard Shaw, and others, on the need and advantages of being a vegetarian.

Vegetarianism: Recommended in the Vedic Scripture shows that the Vedic scripture severely warns against the danger of accumulating bad karma from the practice of eating flesh, or being connected with it in any way

Vegetarianism Supported in the Bible shows the biblical verses that condemn the eating of meat.

Why Be a Vegan/Vegetarian, a quick review to the benefits of a vegetarian diet.

Frequently Asked Questions About Veganism, regarding basic vegetarianism in ethics & religion, animal cruelty, health & nutrition, and helping others.

Common Ingredients and Chemicals that May Contain Meat Products is a list of often used food additives and preservatives, or Natural Flavorings that may be made from meat derivatives.

Do Vegetarians Get Enough Protein? This is a question that often comes up and this information should be able to settle the issue in favor of vegetarians.

BBC Says World Must Eat Less Meat explains how the world would benefit from eating more vegetables, and the disadvantages of the meat diet.

Beyond Vegetarianism shows how we become free from the karma of using plants in food preparations, and how the plants used in the preparations also make spiritual progress by offering them first to the Lord to become Prasadam, which becomes the perfect yoga diet without karma that helps spiritualize our consciousness.

COOKBOOKS AND RECIPES

http://www.webcom.com/ara/col/books/VEG/ht -- This link takes you to the website of the book "The Higher Taste". It offers purely vegetarian recipes of a wide variety, particularly those of India, that can be printed for your use. They are easy to follow and excellent for nutritional value as well as for the spiritual path. They are sattvic recipes, meaning ingredients in the mode of goodness, and do not contain any garlic or onions, which some people feel are rajasic, or passionate. You will also find articles on the nutritional and environmental benefits of a vegetarian diet, and how such a diet is especially important for a spiritual and karma-free lifestyle.

"Great Vegetarian Dishes" is one of the cookbooks by Kurma Dasa. He has produced others, plus several videos on cooking, which are all excellent. It is nearly 300 pages long. It contains 240 easy and nutritious recipes from around the world, and advice on how to prepare meals with a spiritual consciousness. To more easily view it over the web, we have divided it into the following sections available through these links:

1 [Introduction, Spiritual Advice, and Rice and Soups],

2 [Breads and Vegetables],

3 [Salads and Chutneys],

4 [Savories and Grain Dishes],

5 [Beans and Legumes],

6 [Dips, Sauces and Dressings],

7 [Sweets and Deserts],

8 [Drinks and Meal Suggestions].

Go through it and copy the recipes you like, or download them to an empty floppy disk or your hard drive. If you like the recipes, then consider buying the printed edition which includes the beautiful photographs as well. This edition was downloaded from the website http://freeprabhupadabooks.tripod.com.


For those who observe the day called Ekadasi, here is a cookbook with a collection of 49 preparations of all kinds, such as vegetable preps, chutnies, curries, paneer (cheese) preps, lassis, and more, all without grains or beans. Check it out online at: Ekadasi Recipes Cookbook.

Here is another little cookbook of eleven vegetarian sweets from the various states of India. They are great preps if you want to try something different, called: Diwali Sweets.

Another cookbook that you may like is "Vasti's Online Indian Vegetarian Cookbook." You can find it at this website: http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/Vineyard/2378//page1.html.


Here is a most comprehensive cookbook called "Food for Peace" by Rambhoru devi dasi. It contains all kinds of breads, salads, vegetable preps, drinks, savories, and lots more, plus articles on vegetarianism. You can find it at http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Courtyard/8761/index.html.

Two more online cookbooks that you can look over or print for your immediate use include "A Taste of Vitality" and "Desserts of Vitality". These offer purely vegan recipes with no dairy or wheat ingredients. More people are taking to the vegan diet, so this will accommodate them. Some of these, however, use garlic and onions which some people who follow the sattvic diet may object to using. Therefore, I recommend excluding or substituting such ingredients with asafoetida (hing), or something similar if you prefer. Any experienced cook can use these recipes with their own imagination to make them in a way more to their liking. Otherwise, these are good recipes and informative books. Your can find these at: http://www.vitalita.com/cookbooks.html. Or you can go right to the PDF versions (if you have Adobe Acrobat reader) at the following sites: http://www.vitalita.com/docs/ATasteOfVitality.pdf and http://www.vitalita.com/docs/DessertsOfVitality.pdf.

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In the words of George Bernard Shaw:

We are living graves of murdered beasts

Slaughtered to satisfy our appetites.

We never pause to wonder at our feasts,

If animals like men could possibly have rights.

We pray on Sunday that we may have light,

To guide our footsteps on the paths we tread.

We are sick of war, we do not want to fight,

And we gorge ourselves upon the dead.

Like Carrion Crows we live and feed on meat,

Regardless of the suffering and pain

We cause by doing so, in this we treat,

Defenseless animals for sport or gain -

How can we hope in this world to attain

The peace we say we are so anxious for,

We pray for it o'er hetacomba of slain,

To God while outraging the moral law,

Thus cruelty begets the offspring --- WAR !

The Prayer of Fellowship of Life

"Our God our Father, we thank Thee for the wonder and beauty of Thy creation. Forgive us, we pray that we have taken it all for granted and have ruthlessly and selfishly exploited it in so many ways contrary to Thy will.

"In particular we pray for the animals and birds, sharers with us in Thy creation, that are powerless to protect themselves from the terror and anguish of slaughterhouses and vivisection laboratories, and those that die cruel and often lingering deaths so that we may wear their skins. Let us cease to turn deaf ears to their cries and teach us how to live our lives mercifully and justly so that our love for Thee will be mirrored by our love for all Thy creation."

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ADDITIONAL WEB SITE RESOURCES


Vegetarian Recipes, Animal-free Food Products, Information on Benefits of the Vegetarian Diet, and more.

More vegetarian recipes and excellent information on how and why to be a vegetarian are included in the list of over 60 worthwhile websites that follow. These sites can help provide you with many resources for additional recipes, instructions, utensils, vegan food products, cruelty-free clothing, and information on the benefits of being vegetarian, directories of vegetarian restaurants, and additional links to other resources.

Http://www.vrg.org -- site by the Vegetarian Resource Group with lots of info, recipes, resources, etc. Or use http://www.vrg.org/recipes to go right to the recipes.

http://www.vegforlife.org -- this site can help you with your decision to go vegetarian for life and the rest of your life with many resources for your assistance. Or go directly to this section of their site that will take you to additional places for hundreds of various vegie recipes: http://www.vegforlife.org/eats.htm#recipes.

http://www.goodstuffonline.com/recipes.html -- check out more vegetarian recipes on this website.

http://www.veganchef.com -- the site of Beverly Lynn Bennett, a vegan chef, includes loads of vegan recipes.

http://www.manjulaskitchen.com -- a unique website for Indian vegetarian recipes with the recipe, instructions and a video showing how to prepare each dish so you cannot go wrong.

http://www.indianchild.com/vegeterian_recipes.htm -- lots of Indian vegetarian recipes, and more links.

http://www.vegkitchen.com -- features dozens of low-fat recipes, kitchen wisdom, and tips for new and aspiring vegetarians.

http://www.IVU.org -- the International Vegetarian Union with lots of resources on being a vegetarian, and http://www.IVU.org/recipes for tons of recipes from around the world.

http://www.vegweb.com/food -- the Veggies Unite recipes directory for lots of choices.

http://pavan.org.in/kitchen.html -- a site that offers a wide variety of vegetarian recipes.

http://www.deliciousindia.com/India/indianRecipes.htm#Vegetarian%20Sites -- here is a site that lists numerous other sites and resources for many Indian vegetarian recipes. There is a wide variety, so check the ingredients of any prep that interests you. This is from http://www.deliciousindia.com, an Indian cyber mall on Indian cooking with recipes, utensils, and more that you can order.

http://www.vegcooking.com/cookwithhema.asp -- a site that offers many vegetarian recipes, entrees, deserts, condiments, salads, side dishes, snacks, soups, beverages, etc.

http://www.Mahabazaar.com -- a cyber shop that offers Indian groceries, Indian recipes, books, news about events, and more.

http://www.Bhojan.org -- a site for information on Hindu vegetarian resources, includes lots of recipes, vegetarian grocery store directory, vegetarian restaurant listings, and much more.

http://turn.to/Vegetarianism -- A Hare Krishna site on vegetarianism, based in New Zealand, with lots of information on benefits of being vegetarian and how to do it.

http://www.tarladalal.com -- this site has many Indian vegetarian recipes and resources, but you must register and sign in to have access to most of the site, which is worth it for serious vegetarians with an interest in Indian foods.

http://student.anu.edu.au/clubs/Hare_Krishna_Vegetarian_Society -- a great site with lots of information and resources for being a vegetarian.

http://www.dixiediner.com -- offers a catalog of over 150 vegan food products. Now you can get what you need no matter where you are. Offers recipes, utensils, special food items, like dehydrated veggies, non-sugar, meat substitutes, soy products, bread mixes, quick mix preparations, canned goods, cookies, chocolates, and more.

http://www.healthy-eating.com -- offers a catalog of items for meat, dairy and egg substitutes, instant meal mixes, vegan and alternative health and yoga books, even vegetarian pet food, and more.

http://cheese.joyousliving.com -- offers a list of cheese manufacturers that make vegetarian cheese without animal enzymes.

http://www.veganoutreach.org -- has lots of information on the vegan lifestyle, diet, recipes, ingredients to choose, books to order, cruelty-free living, how to stay a healthy vegan, etc. http://www.veganoutreach.com/starterpack/recipes.html -- is a page that list several good vegetarian recipes.

http://www.vegetariansabroad.com -- offers a variety of vegetarian recipes and links to many other vegetarian based businesses and resources.

http://www.vegetarian-restaurants.net -- a great listing and directory of all the vegetarian (and vegetarian friendly) restaurants and natural food stores across America (over 2500). Has additional resources and information of co-ops, organizations, web sites, and vegetarian recipes and topics. A most useful site.

http://www.vegetarian-restaurants.net/SouthAmerica/Brazil.htm -- a listing of vegetarian restaurants in Brazil.

http://www.naturalnirvana.com -- has a directory of vegetarian restaurants, grocery stores, guidebooks on restaurants, information on clothes, herbs, and more, as well as guidebooks on India and Nepal.

http://www.naturalnirvana.com/Vegetarian/Vegetarian-Links/Vegetarian-Links.htm a site with many links and resources for recipes, guides and directories for vegetarian restaurants around the world, other vegan sites, veggie organizations, animal rights groups, and more.

http://www.naturalnirvana.com/Vegetarian/Vegetarian-Files/Non-vegetarian-ingredients.htm -- list of ingredients in food that are often derived from meat.

Sites for More Information for Being a Vegetarian

http://www.vivavegie.org/vv101/index.html -- 101 reasons for being a vegetarian.

http://people.qualcomm.com/sriharid/info/vegetarianism/veg.html -- A beginner's guide to vegetarianism, a short article.

http://www.webcom.com/ara/col/books/VEG/hkvc1.html -- "Vegetarianism: A Means to a Higher End," by Adiraja das. Explains the material and spiritual advantages and need for a vegetarian diet.

http://www.indianchild.com/vegeteriansim_in_india.htm -- a page on Vedic reasons why vegetarianism is good for us and our spiritual practice, plus vegie recipes and more.

http://www.jewishveg.com -- This site explains why many Jewish religious leaders advocate vegetarianism, including Chief Rabbi of Britain Jonathan Sacks, late Chief Rabbi of Israel Shlomo Goren, and the first Chief Rabbi of pre-state Israel Abraham Kook?

http://www.goveg.com/jsfkosher.asp -- presents a video "If This is Kosher" on the atrocities in the agriprocessors that are said to produce kosher meat. "If This is Kosher" makes the idea of kosher meat as cruel as any process of animal slaughter there is.

http://www.indianchild.com/vegeterianism_quotes.htm -- a page that offers thoughtful quotes by important and noteworthy people on the need to be vegetarian.

http://www.clubs.psu.edu/up/vedicsociety/vegetarianism/ -- a short online film on the reasons and benefits of being a vegetarian from the Penn State Vedic Society.

http://www.christianveg.com/goodnews.htm -- a free ebook by Christians for convincing other Christians that vegetarianism is the proper diet. The title is "Good News for All Creation: Vegetarianism as Christian Stewardship".

http://www.ivu.org/religion/index.html -- a great list of many articles that look at all the religions and religious reasonings behind being a vegetarian.

http://www.veganhealth.org/shv#ada -- a site that lists the various concerns on staying a healthy vegan and the easy ways to get the proper nutrients in one's diet.

http://www.vegansociety.com -- a site that offers information about proper nutrition, the vegan lifestyle, animal and environmental issues, and more.

http://www.vegsoc.org -- the site of the Vegetarian Society with lots of info about being a vegetarian, with books, articles, recipes and more info about how to be vegetarian and promote its benefits.

http://www.therealfoodchannel.com/page/18.html -- Watch this video:The effect of animal fats on the human body

http://www.celestialhealing.net/physicalveg3.htm -- How humans are not physically created to eat meat.


Sites for Animal-free Products and Non-Leather Items

http://www.TheVegetarianSite.com -- offers news about vegetarian issues, articles, recipes, and resources for shoes, etc., that are leather-free.

http://www.VeganEssentials.com -- one of the largest selections of 100% vegan products in one place. Offers vegan shoes, belts, gourmet vegan food and sweets, body care products, and more.

http://www.VeganStore.com -- large selection of vegan goods, body care, cosmetics, vitamins, chocolates, candies, books and more. A one stop shop for cruelty-free needs.

http://www.mooshoes.com -- Carries non-leather items, shoes, jackets, ethical wares, vegan belts, wallets, bags, message T-shirts, buttons, stickers, etc.

http://www.downbound.com -- Downbound.com offers a wide assortment of products that promote animal rights (all vegan), human rights (no sweatshop and fair trade), and the environment (organic wherever possible). The name “Downbound” represents an ideological shift down the corporate ladder, down the food chain and down to earth. They carry over 200 organic hemp clothing and footwear items, organic fair trade coffee, DVD’s, etc.

http://www.sunflourbaking.com -- offers cookies and snacks that have no animal products and the finest vegan ingredients, along with ingredients for sale such as non-hydrogenated expeller pressed canola oil, non-aluminum baking powder, etc.

http://www.vegancats.com -- cruelty-free, vegan products for dogs and cats.

http://www.veggiepets.com -- a company in the United Kingdom for those who want to have vegetarian pet foods.

http://www.cowsarecool.com -- info on problems with leather and free guide to leather alternatives.

http://petacatalog.com -- lots of items helping and promoting a vegetarian lifestyle.

http://www.awbi.org/pamp24.htm -- the Animal Welfare Board of India and their list of meat ingredients in common foods, cosmetics, clothing, etc. Quite revealing.

http://www.veganchic.com -- offers a variety of non-leather shoes and lady's handbags.

Sites for Additional Resources, News and Issues on Vegetarianism, and Animal Protection Groups

http://www.ffl.org -- Food for Life, the world's largest vegan/vegetarian food relief organization.

http://www.vegetariantimes.com -- the site for Vegetarian Times magazine.

http://www.vegsource.com -- a site that offers news, views, recipes, etc., on vegetarianism/veganism.

http://www.goveg.com//vegkit/index.html -- here you can get your kit packed with info about going vegetarian, plus has a few recipes.

http://www.pcrm.org -- the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, has news, information on vegetarianism, progress on stopping animal testing, publications, and more.

http://www.meat.org/ -- "If Slaughterhouses had Glass Walls, everyone Would be Vegetarian" narrated by Paul McCartney, it shows the real horrors and cruelty that go on in slaughterhouses. If any sees this and remains a meat eater, their state of mind should be questioned...

http://www.meetyourmeat.com -- order or download Peta's video "Meet Your Meat", narrated by Alec Baldwin, has undercover footage Peta has taken of how animals are abused in meat and dairy industries.

http://www.sharetheworld.com -- has a nongraphic video for children.

http://www.bancruelfarms.org/meatrix -- the real story of cruel factory farms and what you can do about it.

http://www.Peta-online.org -- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, has news, views on animal cruelty, publications on vegetarianism, etc.

http://www.PetaIndia.com -- how to assist Peta's campaign to help cows, goats and sheep in India, and other advocacy work.

http://www.collegeactivist.com -- lots of info for veganizing your college dining hall and other ways to get active.

http://www.animalactivist.com -- tons of resources to do more for animals, literature, videos, etc.

http://www.vsdc.org -- site of the Vegetarian Society of the District of Columbia.

http://www.greenpeople.org/vegetarian.cfm?memid=321 -- the site for the Vegetarian Resource Center.

http://www.vasumurti.org -- the site of Vasu Murti das and his writings, with many great and informative articles and book excerpts on the devotional, religious and civil need for a vegetarian lifestyle.

http://www.satyamag.com -- a magazine of Vegetarianism, Environmentalism and Animal Advocacy.

http://www.greenpeople.org/vegetarian.htm -- you can find a huge listing of additional vegetarian organizations and their websites from around the country, maybe one near you.

http://www.all-creatures.org -- the site of long-time vegans and animal rightists Frank and Mary Hoffman, dedicated to furthering peaceful, compassionate living for the whole creation. A huge site with lots of articles on all aspects of the significance of the vegetarian and compassionate lifestyle, from the religious to social.

http://www.kinshipcircle.org -- offers a collection of ready-made letters to legislators, businesses, and media that address animal cruelty/protection issues.

http://www.FarmSanctuary.org -- a large organization with many projects which operates the farm animal sanctuaries, and wages campaigns to stop the exploitation of animals raised for food. Also has news, resources, books, videos, etc.

http://www.vivausa.org -- offers info on the disadvantages and dangers of meat-eating, issues of farm bred animals for meat consumption, and educational info about the need for the vegetarian lifestyle.

http://www.anc.org -- the site for the Animals News Center.

http://www.vegetarianhome.com -- lots more resources and information on all aspects on the vegetarian lifestyle.

http://www.anc.org/laboratory/laboratory_article.cfm?identifier=2003_0409_site -- a page that promotes animal dissection alternatives.

http://www.madcowboy.com -- Howard Lyman's site on the dangers of mad cow disease, a meat diet, news, and the need for vegetarianism.

http://www.notmilk.com -- lots of articles and news on the issues and dangers of milk and modern milk industry.


Courtesy : www.Stephan-Knapp.com

Great Indians who did Great Things

Here are some short reviews of some great Indian masters who made great contributions to world development.


VARAHAMIHIR (499-587 CE) EMINENT ASTROLOGER AND ASTRONOMER



Renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti ( Ujjain ). Varahamihir's book "panchsiddhant" holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the "Bruhad Samhita" and "Bruhad Jatak," he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.


NAGARJUNA (100 CE) WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE



He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh . His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like "Ras Ratnakar," "Rashrudaya" and "Rasendramangal" are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. As the author of medical books like "Arogyamanjari" and "Yogasar," he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda . Nagarjuna's milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists of today.


BHASKARACHARYA II (1114-1183 CE) GENIUS IN ALGEBRA



Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise "Siddhanta Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the "Surya Siddhanta" he makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction." Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton. He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medieval India. His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.


ARYABHATT (476 CE) MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN



Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur ( Bihar ), Aryabhatt's intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam." He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, "This value has been given by the Hindus." And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics.


ACHARYA SUSHRUT (600 BCE) FATHER OF PLASTIC SURGERY



A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sushrut details the first ever surgery procedures in "Sushrut Samhita," a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe, Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the "Sushrut Samhita," he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse's hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the "Sushrut Samhita," he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.


ACHARYA PATANJALI (200 BCE) FATHER OF YOGA



The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh, is considered to be the first to codify this ancient tradition. He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali's 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna. The Science of Yoga has gained popularity because of its scientific approach and benefits. Yoga also holds the honored place as one of six philosophies in the Indian philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-discipline, happiness and self-realization.


ACHARYA KANAD (600 BCE) FOUNDER OF ATOMIC THEORY



As the founder of "Vaisheshik Darshan"- one of six principal philosophies of India - Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwaraka in Gujarat . He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, "Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules." His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton. Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other. The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook, has said, "Compared to the scientists of Europe, Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field."

ACHARYA BHARADWAJ (800 BCE) PIONEER OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY



Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ardent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further reflected through techniques described by him:
1.) Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force.
2.) Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force.
3.) Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane.
4.) Visual Secrets: The technique to see what's happening inside another plane.
Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology.


ACHARYA KAPILA (3000 BCE) FATHER OF COSMOLOGY



Celebrated as the founder of the Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapila is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardama and Devahuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers - incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology. Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as the Father of Cosmology.



Indian & American family problems

On a lighter note.. But gives a good perspective . Forwarded by friends.

Indian & American family problems:
Two men, one American and an Indian were sitting in a bar drinking shot after shot.

The Indian said to the American, ‘You know my parents are forcing me to get married to this so called homely girl from a village whom I haven’t even met once.’ We call this arranged marriage. I don’t want to marry a woman whom I don’t love… I told them that openly and now have a hell lot of family problems.’

The American said, talking about love marriages… I’ll tell you my story. I married a widow whom I deeply loved and dated for 3 years. ‘After a couple of years, my father fell in love with my step-daughter and married her, so my father became my son-in-law and I became my father’s father-in-law. Legally now my daughter is my mother and my wife my grandmother. More problems occurred when I had a son. My son is my father’s brother and so he is my uncle. Situations turned worse when my father had a son. Now my father’s son, my brother is my grandson. Ultimately, I have become my own grand father and I am my own grandson.. And you say you have family problems…idiot

Indian family system & concept of marriage is quite simple compared to the western concept of marriage. One has to only follow the tradition which leads to happiness. After hearing the complications the Indian called his parents and agreed to marry the girl the parents had selected. : )

Nothing against love marriages though : )

The Cost of Losing National Pride

The perception of some of the elite Indians may have changed a wee bit after the global recession but the majority of “educated & elite Indians” still lack national pride owing to our colonial education system.

A Bharat which draws inspiration from its past and drives into the future with firm roots of its indigenous genius would be unstoppable.
This article throws some light of the impressions of the inventor of the portable computer, Adam Osborne about Indians and their potential.

Osborne’s India
Author: S Gurumurthy
Publication: Organiser; Date: June 1, 2003

Introduction: What the man who invented the portable computer thought of IndiaOf course, Adam Osborne invented the portable computer. Turned a billionaire. Ended as bankrupt. His father Arthur Osborne spent the best part of his life with Ramana Maharishi.

Brought up and educated in Tiruvannamalai, Adam Osborne went back to the US and then came back to India. Settled in Kodaikanal, he was to the ordinary Indian the ‘White Tamilian’. He loved roses. All true. But this is ‘not just what Adam Osborne, who died recently in mother India’s laps, was. What this man-who sought solace in India-thought about India and Indians is far more important to English-educated elite Indians.

Writing in Data Quest magazine in the US well before he came back to settle in India, Osborne recalled his life at the Ramanashram in Turuvanammalai thus: “I was surrounded by Indians who were proud of their nationality and heritage”. Not just that. He says they “believed they had a lot to teach us Europeans”. Here the reference is to the’ ordinary Indian, the Indian proud of his nation.

He also finds another category of Indians, the elite and highly successful Indians and as a sample, Indian Americans. This is what he says about them. “Today I find myself dealing with Indians, many of who do not feel proud of their Indianness. Indian Americans represent the most affluent minority in America, ahead of Jewish Americans and Japanese Americans. This is a statistic and not an opinion. Indians swarm all over the Silicon Valley. Indians are recognized throughout America as technically superior’.

“And yet as a group, they lack national pride,” he says. “Indians are not proud of their nationality as Indians. Something I realised many years ago. Something that puzzled me, I have frequently talked to Indians of their lack of national pride, with telling results. Invariably, after making this assertion from the lecture podium, I find myself surrounded by Indians: Engineers, scientists, doctors, even lawyers, all asserting the correctness of my observations, ‘You are correct,’ they will ‘I am not proud that I am an Indian.”‘ Asks Adam Osborne, “Is India’s colonial heritage the sole reason? Who knows?’ “But, says Osborne, ‘whatever the reasons, it is a pity.”

What has it cost us? Osborne thinks this has made India a third world nation. He says: Since the day Indians learn pride, India will rapidly move out of its third world status to become one of the world’s industrial powers. Moved for India he swears: I will return to India, to preach Indian pride. I will preach that Indians must learn to be proud of being Indians…. irrespective of their race or religion.”

Suppose they regain their pride. Says Adam Osborne: “Then there will be no more shoddy Indian products” Why? Because every worker will generate output with the stamp of a proud man on it. With self-evident quality that screams out: “That is the work of an Indian!” Osborne thinks this will even bring down corruption. “And corruption will decline. Even though these root causes of corruption transcend the bases of lack of Indian pride of which I speak, nevertheless a proud man will pause, more than a man without pride, before extending his hand to receive a bribe.” He concludes: “A proud Indian will try harder to be responsible for products and services that others will praise. And it is in that praise that India’s future Industrial greatness lies.”

National pride is thus equally the winning formula in trade wars as in actual wars. No amount of foreign investment is substitute for that. Will our elites who undermine the pride of Indians day after day realise Adam Osborne’s prescription for them? For two reasons, I have quoted Adam Osborne. One, as he is a White man, his words are important to the Indian elite who want validation from the west. Second, as he sought solace in India, his words are important to me.

Tragic Story of Partition of India

This is a short summary basically of the events that lead to the Tragic story of partition. The summary of events are based on the ” Tragic Story of partition” by H.V.Seshadri. I found that there is no online material on the subject.

A lot of editing is still due on the final preparation but since 14th August happens to be the day that Bharat was partitioned, I thought it would be of interest of the readers to go through the document. I promise that a much refined version of the same would be posted shortly.

The Tragic Story of Partition – HV Seshadri
- A Summary

1703-1762 – Shah Wahiullah Dehlavi inspired the Wahabi movement & bore upon Muslims to keep away from national mainstream. He asked them to feel a part of the entire Muslim world. His son, Shah Abdul Aziz 1746-1822- declared Bharat as Dar ul Harb. They created an army of 80,000 wahabis and attacked the Sikhs. After being routed by the Sikhs, they attacked the British. The British therefore took upon the process of neutralization.

Sir Syed Ahmed khan, a loyal servant of the British formed the Aligarh Muslim University in 1875. However, in 1884, he declared that Muslims, Xtians and Hindus are part of the same Hindu nation. Needless to say, this was only for the consumption of the Hindus. By 1888, he declared that Hindus and Muslims cannot live together and one has to conquer the other to survive.

In 1904, the seeds of the partition of Bengal were sown by the British & in 1905 the partition happened. Sir Henry Cotton said, “ The objective of the measure was to shatter the unity of India.” Nawab Salimullah Khan was won over by the British by a bribe of 1 Lac. But his own brother, Khwaja Atikulla declared that the Muslims are against partition.

The opposition to the partition of Bengal was widespread across the country. On Oct 16, 1905 over 50,000 people participated in Raksha bandhan program on the banks of Ganga, resolving to undo the partition. Rabindranath Tagore and other leaders were in the forefront of this movement. This movement was also called the Vandemataram movement. Vandemataram become the mantra that aroused the entire country.

By 1906, Minto Morley observed that caste and religion were weakening and prepared the separate electorate plan.

Founding of Muslim League: On 30th Dec 1906, the Muslim league was formed at Dacca under the leadership of Nawab Salimullah Khan with Aga Khan as its permanent President. Aga Khan is 48th in the lineage of Shia Imams. The following were the stated objectives:
a. Loyalty to the British
b. To protect the political rights of the Muslims
c. As far as possible under the paras a and b to promote friendly feelings between Muslims and other communities.

Not withstanding the above, a pamphlet was published by name Lal Ishtehar and distributed to the delegates – “ Ye Muslims Arise , Awake ! Do not read in the same schools with Hindus. Do not buy anything from a Hindu shop. Do not touch any article manufactured by Hindu hands. Do not give any employment to a Hindu. Do not accept any degrading office under a Hindu. You are ignorant, but if you acquire knowledge you can at once send all Hindus to Jehannum( Hell). You form the majority of the population in this province. The Hindu has no wealth of his own and has made himself rich only by despoiling you of your wealth. If you become sufficiently enlightened, then the Hindus will starve and soon become Mohammadans.”

On 4th March, riots broke out in Comilla, now in Bangladesh. Rape, arson, loot were common in that period.

At the same time due to the Vandemataram movement lead by Lal, Bal and Pal, the British government was forced to annul the partition of Bengal. The Muslim league leaders were shocked. As recorded by Aga Khan, In 1906, a barrister by name Md.Ali Jinnah was vehemently opposed to the principle of separate electorates. He said this principle is dividing the nation itself.

The freedom movement now started spreading worldwide. Shyamji Krishna Varma, Lala Hardayal, Rash Behari Bose, Savarkar, Madam Cama, Dhingra and many more took the message of India’s freedom worldwide. At the same time in 1910, Khudiram Bose, a boy of 18 years threw a bomb a British official, Kingsford. The nation was astounded by the bravery of the boy.

Right Approach to Dissolving Muslim separatism :
Bismil-Ashfaq friendship and their sacrifice for the nation.
Kazi Saifuddin supported Tilak’s Ganesh Utsav Mandals, Shivaji Jayanti etc. However, at the same time Times of India declared Sivaji as anti-Muslim.

Some more thoughtful Muslims came forward against separatist attitude of the Mullah-maulvis.

Appeasement of Muslims by Congress :
In 1888 itself under Badruddin Tyabji had declared that Congress would not pursue any policy that is opposed nearly unanimously by both Hindus and Muslims.
Swami Shradhananda observed that even from 1899 Muslim delegates were given free tickets by the Congress.

1916, Lucknow pact which accepted and gave weightage to separate electorates was approved by stalwarts of the likes of Tilak too. Among the top leaders, only Madan Mohan Malviya opposed it.

1919, Khilafat movement began to restore the Khalifa of Turkey, Kemal Pasha. Kemal himself was inspired by Jamaluddin Afghani who advocated liberal reform in all Muslim countries by giving up clinging to their past.

Oblivious of this, the Muslim league insisted that the Congress join the khilafat movement. Gandhi launched the non co-operation movement was launched to support the Khilafat movement. Even Tilak supported it. Swami Shradhananda spoke from the Jama Masjid. Aga Khan and Amir Ali met Kemal Pasha but they were rebuked. He said” Islam is a religion of defeated people. He dethroned Islam from pedestal of official state religion and declared Turkey secular.

Khilafat aftermath : The Muslims went on a rampage on the Hindus. Servants of India society recorded that in Moplah, Kerala, over 1 lac people were displaced, 20K converted and 1500 people killed. Even pregnant women and cows were not spared. They killed the men and married the women and they declared Gandhi a kafir.

During this period, Swami Shradhananda notes, “ even nationalist Muslims support Moplahs. Gandhi said “ They are god fearing people & have acted based on what they have understood of Islam. Annie Beasant rebuked Gandhi.

1925, Suhrawardy, a one time member of Swaraj Party wrote on Haj very approvingly that Islam claims thousands of Hindus every year. These people are put in the discipline of the annual pilgrimage of Mecca and they retrun to India purged and purified, and adopting the manners and customs of Arabia, become as distinct from the Hindus as the Hindus are from the Chinese and Jews. Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, a so called nationalist Muslim warned Hindus against putting any obstacles in our path for the Tanzim movement.

Ghar Vapasi : By this time Swami Shradhananda realized that unless Islamic conversions are arrested, we would not be able to survive. In 1923, he reconverted 18,000 Muslims back to the Hindu fold. He observed that while Muslims involved in Tabligh were encouraged by the Congress, Hindus involved in Shudhi were tabooed. In 1926, Swamiji was murdered by Abdul Rashid. Gandhi supported Rashid saying that guilty are those who excited feelings of hatred against one another. He called Rashid a brother. The case for Rashid was fought by Asaf Ali. We must remember that Gandhi refused to put a signature in favour of saving the lives of Bhagat Singh, called Sivaji, Rana Pratap and Guru Gobind Singh as misguided patriots did call Rashid his brother and asked a senior Congress leader to fight to save him.

1924, every Hindu festival was attacked. Gandhi declared in Young India “ My own experience but confirms that the Mussalman as a rule is a bully and the Hindu as a rule is a coward. Need the Hindus blame the Mussalman for his cowardice? Where there are cowards there will always be bullies..

Hindus Massacred in Kohat : Kohat was a small town with less than 5% of Hindu population in NWFP As many as 150 Hindus were killed. The entire Hindu population had to seek shelter in Rawalpindi, 320 km away. Gandhi fasted for 21 days since he could do nothing to bring the two communities together. When Mahadev Desai asked for what error he was undergoing the fast, , he replied, “What error ? I may be charged wit breach of faith with Hindus. Hindu women are in mortal terror of Muslim goondas. How can I ask the Hindus to put up with everything patiently ? and then said “ Who listens to me and yet even today I ask Hindus to die and not to kill”.

On 18th April 1924, Rabindranath Tagore wrote in the TOI, “ Muslims cannot confine their patriotism to one country”.

In 1924, Lala Lajpat Rai wrote to CR Das, “ I am not afraid of the 7 crores of Muslims of Hindustan, but I think the seven crores of Hindustan plus armed hosts of Afghanistan, Central Asia, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Turkey will be irresistible. I do honestly believe in the necessity and desirability of Hindu Muslim unity. I am fully prepared to the trust the Muslim leaders, but what about the injunctions of the Koran and Hadis? The leaders cannot override them. I hope your learned mind and wise head will find some way out of this difficulty.

Rising Demands: From 4 to 14 points. Partition Plan
a. Sind separation from Mumbai.
b. NWFP & baluchistan as full fledged governor provinces.
c. Punjab and Bengal to have proportionate representation
d. 1/3 Muslims in Central legislature.
e. Plus 14 other points

1930, Nehru adopted completed independence resolution. In the same year, Iqbal as President of Muslim league pressed for partition.

Communal award by PM of Britain, Ramsay Macdonald – 1932 : Separate electorates for Sikhs, Muslims, Eurpoeans, Xtians, Anglos & depressed classes. But same minority rights not to Hindus in Muslim majority areas. While Ambedkar supported this, Gandhi opposed this thus saving Hindu society. However, the Congress took the official stand of neither supporting nor rejecting the award. This angered Malviaya and Bhai Parmanand who quit the Congress.

1937, Congress swept the Provincial elections, League slumped. This also saw the metamorphisis of Jinnah who had returned to India in 1934. The League took a complete separatist stand.

Savarkar, who formed the Hindu Mahasabha declared in 1937 that India cannot be assumed to be a homogenous nation, but on the contrary there are two nations in the main, The Hindu and the Muslim. This came as a rude shock to the other Indian nationalists. However, Savarkar was dead set against formation of a Hindu India an Muslim India. Let the Indian state be purely Indian with no cognizance whether he is a Hindu, Muslim, Christian or a Jew.

Symbols compromised:
In 1923, Kakinanda Session, Vandemataram was opposed in its full form by the Congress President, Maulana Md. Ali. Vishnu Digambar Pulaskar however continued to sing it. In 1922, Congress had already accepted Sare Jahan Se Accha as an alternate anthem. By 1937, Vandemataram was truncated.

1931, Flag Committee, Patel, Maualana Azad, Tara Singh, Nehru, Kalelkar, Dr.hardikar and Dr.Patabhi Sitaramayya. They all accepted the saffron flag with Chakra in blue. Yet the tricolour was chosen.
Shiv Bhavani of Bhushan was banned in 1934. Bhajans were tampered – raghupati raghava rajaram to say Ishwar Allah tere naam. Cow slaughter was given free hand. In a letter to Jinnah in 1938, Nehru assured that Congress would not restrict the established rights of the muslims.

Congress resigns League enters :
22nd Dec 1939 –IN protest against the British unequivocal stand of involving India in the WW II without as much consulting the leaders of the country, the Congress leaders resigned from the government. The Muslim league was quick to act and occupied all positions. In Assam, the got a golden opportunity to change the demography by settling Muslims and making it into a Muslim dominated area.

The Muslim league submitted a memorandum for the partition of India as Pakistan. It is notabele that tin the Pakistan resolution, the demand was made for independent states for Muslims in N.E and Eastern Zones of India. It was later that the word States was changed as State. Jinnah termed it as a printing error.

Savarkar calls for militarizing Hindus. He said” Mind, Swaraj will never come to you, although you cover the whole earth with paper resolutions. But if you pass resolutions with rifles on your shoulders, you will attain it.

In 1942, Cripps mission – he assured that Hyderabad state would be part of the Muslim dominion. Congress launched the “ Quit India movement”. It failed due to absence of efficient organisatiion of national revolutionary forces. ( JP)

British-League- Communist Hook Up:
The communists had supported Congress in anti-British stand since Hitler had tied up with Stalin. However when Germany invaded Russia in 1941, Russia aligned with Britain and therefore the communists and league cosied up.

Gandhi- Jinnah talks for 19 days: Shyama Prasad Mukherjee urged Gandhi not to engage in talks with Jinnah.
Gandhi argued against two nation theory, “ I find no parallel in history for a body of coverts and their descendants claiming to be one nation apart from their parent stock.” While Gandhi called Jinnah has Quaid E Azam, Jinnah always referred to him as Mr.Gandhi. By talking to Jinnah, Gandhi boosted Jinnah’s image.

1945-46 Elections ;
The league however was able to win only in 2 provinces ( Bengal and Sind) out of the 5 it had sought for Pakistan ( Baluchistan, Punjab, NWFP, Bengal and Sind).

Aug 16th 1946, Direct action Day:
Jinnah declared jehad against Hindus. Terror was unleashed on the Hindus. In Bengal and Sind, holiday was declared on 16th August. The police which was overwhelmingly Muslim, joined hands. In Bengal and sind, Muslims formed 70% of the police. At the meeting convened under the presidentship of Premier Suhrawardy, speaker after speaker called for Jehad against the Muslims. The Hindus retaliated and seeing that the Muslims were now at the receiving end, the governor called in the army. Over 10,000 men and women were killed, 15000 injured and over 1 lac rendered homeless in Calcutta alone.

The league shifted operations to Noakhali. From a relief centre in E.Bengal Miss Mueral Lester wrote on 6th Nov 1946, “ The women had to watch their husbands being murdered and then forcibly converted and married to the very people who were responsible for their husband’s murder. Mullahs and Maulvis accompanied the rioters to complete the conversion process.”

When Sucheta and Acharya Kriplani met the governor and reported the mass killings and conversions, the governor replied that it is quite natural since Hindu women are more handsome than their muslim counterparts. Syama Prasadji was the first to reach those riot ravaged areas to organize self defence among the Hindus. The riots spread to Bihar where the Hindus had an upper hand. Acharya Kriplani brings the contrast that while in Bengal the government was party to the riots, it was not so in Bihar.

Churchill- Jinnah axis : They used to write to each other under pseudo names. Exposed in letters released in 1982. When Jinnah visited England, he found that the Queen and the King were favourable to Paksitan.

The leagues direct action continued to NWFP, Kashmir. In a village called Khalsa after a prolonged fight when all Hindu and sikh men were killed, 74 women lead by Smt. Lajwanti jumped into a well to save their honour.

Mountbatten arrived in Bharat on 22nd March 1947 :
Gandhi in his first interview to Mountbatten opposed partition . Gandhi gave an offer saying that disband cabinet and invite Jinnah to form his own cabinet which can be completely Muslim.

Nehru remarked that Gandhi had lost touch with happenings at the centre. Gandhi wrote to the Viceroy that since that since his plan was not finding any acceptance, he is handing over the charge of all negotiation to CWC.

Patel accepted to have a clean separation. Nehru and Rajendra Prasad also accepted partition. But Maulana opposed saying that Gandhi’s proposal had the best interest of Muslims in mind

Syama Prasad roused the Hindus to insist to retain West Bengal and East Punjab. Rajendra Prasad reminded Jinnah that this was in line with League’s own Lahore resolution. By the same time, Jinnah came up with a new demand – 800 mile corridor connecting West and East Pakistan.

V.P.Menon came forward with a draft plan for partition. Gandhi a few days earlier had told mountbatten that the Congress may not be with me but India is with me. A few days later in a public program declared that the Viceroy is opposed to partition but since Hindus & Muslims are unable to live together, he is accepting it. When somebody reminded him of his statement, “ Vivisect me before the country. “ , he replied “when the public opinion is against me, am I to coerce it ?”

The president of Congress, Maulana Azad passed the resolution for partition hoping that the partition would be a shortlived one. Purushottam Das Tandon opposed it till the end saying “ Let us suffer the British rule a little longer than sacrifice our cherished goal of united India. Let us gird up our loins to fight, if need be both the British and the League and safeguard the integrity of the country.” There was a loud applause for his words. But Gandhi came down in favour of the acceptance. The issue was clinched. At the close of his speech, Gandhi said, “ Wouldn’t I oppose it, if only I had the time ? But I cannot challenge the present congress leadership and demolish people’s faith in it unless I am in a position to tell them “ Here is an alternate leadership”.I have not the strength today Or else, I would have declared rebellion single handed. But it must be remembered that Nehru told Mosley that if Gandhi had told us, we would have gone on fighting and waiting.

Motive Behind urgency : fear of resitance :
Mountbatten advanced the date of partition from June 1948 to august 1947 by ten months.Almost all Indian officers were opposed to partition. Added to this the general atmosphere was charged in the wake of INA trials and naval revolt.
Mosley writes, partition of India was announced in May 1947 with no plans of division of army till June.
Commission to decide on boundaries of 2 states not yet formed until end of june.
People deliberately kept in ignorance as to which side they would be on until 2 days after Independence.

Radcliff boundary commission award postponed till 17th August complicated the matter.

Cyril Radcliff, chairman of both Punjab and Bengal boundary commission. The congress erred in accepting a one man commission instead of a 3 man commission and that too for both the boundaries. Even the members of the commissions were kept in the dark.. Muslims started to show inflated numbers to influence the decision. M.C.Mahajan and Tej Singh two members of the Punjab commission were so convinced about Lahore remaining as part of Bharat that even they did not begin arrangements to move. Muslims were only 25% of Lahore. Most of the great canal systems, the rich wheat lands, the sikh shrines & Lahore were gifted to Lahore only on the pretext that “ How can two big cities Lahore and Calcutta be given to India” ? Over 40% of them became homeless. The loss to Hindus was over 4000 crores, the loss for muslims was a fraction of that. The same story was repeated in the Chittagong Hill tracts. Overwhelmingly Hindu, it was acceded to East Pakistan. Pakistan with 19% population got 23% territory.

The Holocaust
Mountbatten said “ I give you complete assurance I shall see to it that there is no bloodshed and riot. I am a soldier not a civilian.

What followed was a never before seen cataclysm. The transfer of population that the Congress leaders wanted to avoid, took place. They were killed, robbed, looted in transit. As the biggest migration of population in recorded history was in progress, a most dangerous situation arose in the capital. Every 4th person in Delhi was a Hindu or Sikh refugee from Pakistan. They were furious against the Muslims and also against the Congress.

RSS to the rescue:
Most of the police force was Muslim.
Bharat Ratna, Dr.Bhagwandas said, I have been reliably informed that the RSS youths were able to warn Patel and Nehru about an impending coup on Sept 10, 1947 and about a plan to kill all Hindu officials and plant the flag of Pakistan on the Red Fort. Tens of millions of Hindus would have been slaughtered and all the rest converted to Islam.

Gandhi undertook a fast to grant 55 crores additionally to Pakistan.

A.N.Bali recounts the valour and the service rendered by the RSS swayamsevaks. He say, “ The refugees from West Pakistan- all of them without exception wherever they are living in India to a man, are grateful to RSS for coming to their help at a time when they felt deserted by all.

Assimilation – 600 princely states integrated into one union. Maharaja Hari Singh was convinced by Guruji Golwalkar on 17th Oct 1947 to join in Bharat inspite of Mountbatten asking him to join with Pakistan. On 23rd October, Pakistani tribesman led by general Akbar Khan invaded Kashmir. British commanders rebelled against Kashmir King and handed over Gilgit to Pakistan. The RSS swayamsevaks cleared the Srinagar aerodrome of snow just in time for Indian planes to land. On 21st November, Nehru took the Kashmir issue into the UN.

Hyderabad : Kasim Rizvi the chief of Razakars carried a virulent campaign against Bharat and Hindus. 2 lac Razakars with arms and 40,000 regular and irregulars of the State’s force. The Razakars had aligned themselves with the communists. Indian forces marched into Hyd on Oct 13th 1948. This was operation polo and lasted for just 108 hours.

Bhopal Nawab & Junagarh Nawabs tamed.

Maharaja of Udaipur shows his character :
The dream of Nawab of Bhopal to accede to Pakistan would succeed only if Udaipur which had Jodhpur on West and Indore and Bhopal on East accede to Pak. He said, My choice was made by my ancestors. If they had flattered, they would have left a kingdom as large as Hyderabad. They did not, neither shall I. I am with India.

Was partition unavoidable?
There was a very strong pro-nation sentiment running in the army, INA Trial, naval rebellion were all causing the the CIC of Army, Claude Auchinleck to be in a dilemma.

Stafford Cripps said in a discussion in the house of commons “ The alternate to quitting would have entailed considerable reinforcement of British troops and civil personnel. It would be politically impracticable from both a national and international POV.

Mountbatten while narrating how he was persuaded to accept the assignment as Viceroy said Churchill had accepted that their time in India was up and they were reaching a stalemate there. The situation is murky and it is only you who can resolve it.

The League itself was weak: The Delhi Muslims used to go to Patel and press him to have no truck with the League and have a firm policy against them. It would sap its power and Muslims would gravitate towards the Congress. Muslim society itself was deeply divided with the leadership invariably from the Ashrafi classes. They considered the local Muslims as low

In 1949 in New york, Nehru declared that if they had known the terrible consequences of partition, they would have resisted the.parition of India.

Why we lost ?
1. Lack of idealogical faith in Congress. Their concept of nationhood was emotionless, devoid of life spirit and being limited to territorial, political factors.
2. Lack of National Conviction : Why swaraj ? had been shelved to the background. The sublime national ideals and aspirations forming the life breath of Independence had evaporated.
3. Treating it as a division of brothers. But do you cut your mother too ?
4. Path of national assimilation ignored and a policy of appeasement followed. The slogan became No swaraj without Hindu Muslim unity instead of If you come with me, with you, if you do not, without you ; if you oppose, inspite of you;
5. Toynbee writes ‘ What is Pakistan ? it was the first successful step in this 20th century to realize their ( Muslims) 1200 year old dream of complete subjugation of this country.
6. Hindu backbone broken.. Sarath Chandra Chaterjee writes. When Americans fought for their freedom, more than ½ the people were with the British. In the irish freedom, how many actually engaged in it ? Right or wrong is not decided by counting heads, it is decided by the intensity of tapasya to the cause. No swaraj without Hindu Muslim unity is an insult to the Hindus.
7. Leadership exhausted and tempted: Dr.Ram Manohar Lohia says,” No shadow of doubt need obscure the simple proposition that a decaying leadership operating in a riotious situation produced partition. A more youthful people may have avoided the division of Hindustan. Not one leader was in jail when the country was getting partitioned. I regret that I did nothing to get into jail at India’s partition.
8. In 1960, speaking to Leonard Mosley, Nehru says” the truth is that we were tired men and we were getting on in years too. Few of us could stand the prospect of going to prison again. ( In Leonard Mosley’sThe British Raj)